The reishi mushroom, also known as ganoderma lucidum and lingzhi, is a fungus that grows in various hot and humid locations. Within the mushroom, there are several molecules, including triterpenoids, polysaccharides and peptidoglycans, that may be responsible for the health effects. The mushrooms can be eaten fresh but the more common use in the United States is in a powdered form that contains these specific molecules.
The form of reishi extract we use is water soluble and is grown on purple corn substrate rich in anthocyanin content, which differs from other reishi extracts on the market in that the vast majority are grown on wood pulp, wheat, or oats, resulting in a lower quality resihi extract.
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that occurs in trout, microalgae, yeast, and shrimp, among other sea life. It’s most commonly found in Pacific salmon and is what gives the fish its pinkish color. Astaxanthin also contains other carotenoids naturally occurring in Haematococcus pluvialis such as beta-carotene and lutein.
In our product we use water dispersible BioAstin powder, a red powder easily dispersible in water which contains natural astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae, grown on the pristine coast of Kona, Hawaii.
The use of immune supporting nutrients dates back more than 2000 years when Chinese healers advocated the consumption of reishi mushrooms to support immune health. Unique nutrients such as astaxanthin have also been shown through studies to help support a number of health factors, including immune health. Below you can find studies specific on the specific ingredients we use in our Immune product that have been shown to support immune and cardiovascular health, among others.
Supports immune health
Cheng CH, Leung AY, Chen CF. The effects of two different ganoderma species (Lingzhi) on gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(5):648-58. doi: 10.1080/01635581003605516. PMID: 20574926.
Lin ZB. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Oct;99(2):144-53. doi: 10.1254/jphs.crj05008x. PMID: 16230843.
Chen HS, Tsai YF, Lin S, et al. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. Nov 1 2004;12(21):5595-5601.
Hsu MJ, Lee SS, Lin WW. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. J Leukoc Biol. Jul 2002;72(1):207-216.
Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, et al. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer. Mar 17 1997;70(6):699-705.
Wang C, Shi S, Chen Q, et al. Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides in Glioma-Bearing Rats. Integr Cancer Ther. Sep 2018;17(3):674-683.
Sun LX, Li WD, Lin ZB, et al. Protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced lymphocyte suppression by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014;33(2):289-299.
Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, et al. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. Aug 2003;32(3):201-215.
Bhardwaj N, Katyal P, Sharma AK. Suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses by pharmacologically potent fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2014;8(2):104-17. doi: 10.2174/1872213×08666140619110657. PMID: 24948193.
Tang W, Gao Y, Chen G, Gao H, Dai X, Ye J, Chan E, Huang M, Zhou S. A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract in neurasthenia. J Med Food. 2005 Spring;8(1):53-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2005.8.53. PMID: 15857210.
Matsuzaki H, Shimizu Y, Iwata N, et al. Antidepressant-like effects of a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:370. Published 2013 Dec 26. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-370.
Supports stress reduction and helps fight fatigue
Geng P, Siu KC, Wang Z, Wu JY. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9648496. doi:10.1155/2017/9648496
Soksawatmakhin, Sukanya and Wijit Boonyahotra. Preliminary study of the applications of Ganoderma lucidum in chronic fatigue syndrome. (2014). JOURNAL OF ASIAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOLS OF PHARMACY – Volume 2, January – December, 2013, Pages: 262-268.
Astaxanthin has been documented in over 200 scientific studies including over 50 human clinical trials to show a wide range of benefits, including: joint and tendon health, skin health, cardiovascular health, eye and brain health, recovery from exercise, immune health.
Supports joint & tendon health
Sun K, Luo J, Jing X, et al. Astaxanthin protects against osteoarthritis via Nrf2: a guardian of cartilage homeostasis. Aging (Albany NY). 2019;11(22):10513-10531. doi:10.18632/aging.102474
Supports skin health
Davinelli S, Nielsen ME, Scapagnini G. Astaxanthin in Skin Health, Repair, and Disease: A Comprehensive Review. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):522. Published 2018 Apr 22. doi:10.3390/nu10040522
Iwabayashi, Masaaki, Noriko Fujioka, K. Nomoto, Ryo Miyazaki, H. Takahashi, Sawako Hibino, Y. Takahashi, Koji Nishikawa, M. Nishida and Y. Yonei. Efficacy and safety of eight-week treatment with astaxanthin in individuals screened for increased oxidative stress burden. Anti-aging Medicine 6 (2009): 15-21.
Supports cardiovascular health
Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. Mar Drugs. 2011;9(3):447-465. Published 2011 Mar 21. doi:10.3390/md9030447
Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, Koikeda T, Tsukahara H, Tada N. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Apr;209(2):520-3. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.10.012. Epub 2009 Oct 14. PMID: 19892350.
Supports eye & brain health
Saito M, Yoshida K, Saito W, Fujiya A, Ohgami K, Kitaichi N, Tsukahara H, Ishida S, Ohno S. Astaxanthin increases choroidal blood flow velocity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012 Feb;250(2):239-45. doi: 10.1007/s00417-011-1843-1. Epub 2011 Nov 10. PMID: 22072378.
Nakagawa K, Kiko T, Miyazawa T, Carpentero Burdeos G, Kimura F, Satoh A, Miyazawa T. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun;105(11):1563-71. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510005398. Epub 2011 Jan 31. PMID: 21276280.
Supports recovery from exercise
Baralic I, Djordjevic B, Dikic N, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Spasic S, Jelic-Ivanovic Z, Radivojevic N, Andjelkovic M, Pejic S. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on paraoxonase 1 activities and oxidative stress status in young soccer players. Phytother Res. 2013 Oct;27(10):1536-42. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4898. Epub 2012 Nov 28. PMID: 23192897.
Earnest CP, Lupo M, White KM, Church TS. Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Int J Sports Med. 2011 Nov;32(11):882-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1280779. Epub 2011 Oct 7. PMID: 21984399.
Liu SZ, Ali AS, Campbell MD, et al. Building strength, endurance, and mobility using an astaxanthin formulation with functional training in elderly. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018;9(5):826-833. doi:10.1002/jcsm.12318
Sawaki, K., H. Yoshigi, K. Aoki, N. Koikawa, Akito Azumane, K. Kaneko and M. Yamaguchi. Sports Performance Benefits from Taking Natural Astaxanthin, Characterized by Visual Acuity and Muscular Fatigue Improvement in Humans. (2004).
Supports immune health
Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BP. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010;7:18. Published 2010 Mar 5. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-18
Supports immune health
Calder, P.C.; Carr, A.C.; Gombart, A.F.; Eggersdorfer, M. Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1181.
Aranow C. Vitamin D and the immune system. J Investig Med. 2011;59(6):881-886. doi:10.2310/JIM.0b013e31821b8755
Greiller CL, Martineau AR. Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D. Nutrients. 2015;7(6):4240-4270. Published 2015 May 29. doi:10.3390/nu7064240
Wei R, Christakos S. Mechanisms Underlying the Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Vitamin D. Nutrients. 2015;7(10):8251-8260. Published 2015 Sep 24. doi:10.3390/nu7105392
Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Aliano JL, Bhattoa HP. Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients. 2020 Apr 2;12(4):988. doi: 10.3390/nu12040988. PMID: 32252338; PMCID: PMC7231123.
Charoenngam N, Holick MF. Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):2097. Published 2020 Jul 15. doi:10.3390/nu12072097
Ying‐Chih Cheng, Yu‐Chen Huang, Wei‐Lieh Huang, The effect of vitamin D supplement on negative emotions: A systematic review and meta‐analysis, Depression and Anxiety, 10.1002/da.23025, 37, 6, (549-564), (2020).
Jorde M. Sneve Y. Figenschau J. Svartberg K. Waterloo, Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial. 11 November 2008, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2008.02008.x
Supports calcium absorption
Christakos S, Dhawan P, Porta A, Mady LJ, Seth T. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;347(1-2):25-29. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.038
Gallagher JC, Yalamanchili V, Smith LM. The effect of vitamin D on calcium absorption in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(10):3550-3556. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-2020
Sunyecz JA. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):827-836. doi:10.2147/tcrm.s3552
Khazai N, Judd SE, Tangpricha V. Calcium and vitamin D: skeletal and extraskeletal health. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2008;10(2):110-117. doi:10.1007/s11926-008-0020-y
van der Velde RY, Brouwers JR, Geusens PP, Lems WF, van den Bergh JP. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation: state of the art for daily practice. Food Nutr Res. 2014;58:10.3402/fnr.v58.21796. Published 2014 Aug 7. doi:10.3402/fnr.v58.21796
Supports immune health
Min-Hsiung Pan, Katarzyna Maresz, Pei-Sheng Lee, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Janusz Popko, Dilip S. Mehta, Sidney J. Stohs, and Vladimir Badmaev. Inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β by Pretreatment of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages with Menaquinone-7 and Cell Activation with TLR Agonists In Vitro. Journal of Medicinal Food. Jul 2016.663-669.http://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2016.0030
Goddek S. Vitamin D3 and K2 and their potential contribution to reducing the COVID-19 mortality rate. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;99:286-290. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.080
Supports cardiovascular health
Janssen R, Visser MPJ, Dofferhoff ASM, Vermeer C, Janssens W, Walk J. Vitamin K metabolism as the potential missing link between lung damage and thromboembolism in Coronavirus disease 2019. Br J Nutr. 2020 Oct 7:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114520003979. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33023681; PMCID: PMC7578635.
Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004;134(11):3100–3105.
van Ballegooijen AJ, Beulens JW. The Role of Vitamin K Status in Cardiovascular Health: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies. Curr Nutr Rep. 2017;6(3):197-205. doi:10.1007/s13668-017-0208-8
Haugsgjerd TR, Egeland GM, Nygård OK, et al. Association of dietary vitamin K and risk of coronary heart disease in middle-age adults: the Hordaland Health Study Cohort. BMJ Open 2020;10:e035953. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035953.
Knapen MHJ, Braam LAKJLM, Drummen NE, Bekers O, Hoeks APG, Vermeer C. Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Improves Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. A Double-Blind Randomised Clinical Trial. Thromb Haemost. 2015 May;113(5):1135-44.
Vissers LET, Dalmeijer GW, Boer JMA, Verschuren WMM, van der Schouw YT, Beulens JWJ. The relationship between vitamin K and peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis 252 (2016) 15e20.
Supports the metabolism of calcium
Maresz K. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015;14(1):34-39.
Wasilewski GB, Vervloet MG, Schurgers LJ. The Bone-Vasculature Axis: Calcium Supplementation and the Role of Vitamin K. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2019;6:6. Published 2019 Feb 5. doi:10.3389/fcvm.2019.00006
Zittermann A. Effects of vitamin K on calcium and bone metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001 Nov;4(6):483-7. doi: 10.1097/00075197-200111000-00003. PMID: 11706280.
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